All About Vitamins & Minerals

As a personal trainer in London I train my clients to get fit and strong, but I also educate them about the importance of good nutrition. You can’t out-train a bad diet!

For your body to function optimally, you need the right balance of macro-nutrients (carbohydrates, protein, fats, water) as well as micro-nutrients (vitamins and minerals). In this blog post I’ll focus on the micro-nutrients.

The Vitamins

Vitamin A

The main vitamin for healthy eyesight. Food sources include liver, kidneys, eggs, milk, butter, dark leafy vegetables, carrots.

Vitamin B

This is not a single vitamin, but a whole family of vitamins, as you’ll see below. The main food sources are red meat and grains. Their main function is to help enzymes metabolize the macro-nutrients (fats, proteins, carbs)

Vitamin B1 (Thiamine)

Helps metabolize carbohydrates, energy production, keeps your heart healthy.

Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)

Acts as a catalyst in the mitochondria, the energy factories of your cells.

Vitamin B3 (Nicotinic acid)

Vital for processing fats in the body and regulating your blood sugar levels. Best food sources are fish, chicken, turkey, pork, liver. Symptoms of  B3 deficiency are apathy, poor concentration, low energy, depression.

Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)

Helps metabolize amino-acids (the building-blocks of protein). Good food sources: pork, fish, chicken, turkey, eggs.

Vitamin B9 (Folic acid)

Vital for DNA and RNA synthesis. Good sources are dark green vegetables (don’t overcook!), lentils, eggs (yolk). One of my personal training clients in central London thought that egg yolks were bad for you because of the cholesterol. I explained that this health scare was a myth, and that egg yolks are full of nutrients, including this vitamin.

Vitamin B12 

When you eat fats, they’re broken down into fatty-acids. Vitamin B12 helps metabolize fatty-acids. Other roles include red blood cell production, healthy nervous system, and processing folic acid (B9).

Vitamin C 

Promotes healing of wounds, and regulates cholesterol levels. Best sources are citrus fruits such as lemons and limes, and oranges. Also rich in vitamin C are fruits like blackcurrants and blackberries.

Vitamin D

Exposure to sunlight is vital for vitamin D production. Good food sources are eggs, dairy, and oily fish.

Vitamin E

Fights free radicals and delays the signs of ageing. Good food sources include fresh vegetables, olive oil, nuts and seeds.

Vitamin K 

Controls blood clotting. Good sources: spinach, broccoli, sprouts.

The Minerals

As well as vitamins, your body needs a range of minerals to function effectively. The minerals are divided into major minerals (there are 7 of them) and  the 10 trace minerals.

Major Minerals:

Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body, as it forms the bulk of your bones and teeth, but it easily depletes so you need 1,000mg a day to keep your calcium levels topped up. You also need calcium for many functions such as muscle contraction, nerve transmission, and regulating lactic acid levels after intense activity. Best food sources: milk, yoghurt, cheese (particularly romano cheese, swiss cheese, and ricotta cheese, in that order). Excessive calcium intake could lead to kidney stones.

Chloride is one of the four electrolytes, which regulates fluid levels in the body.

Magnesium is another electrolyte (fluid balance). It also helps your muscles to work harder, by enhancing oxygen delivery to working muscles. Magnesium also activates many enzymes in the body. If you train intensively, make sure you top up your magnesium stores by eating plenty of fish.

Phosphorus together with calcium is an essential component of bones and connective tissue.

Potassium One of the electrolytes, vital for fluid regulation. Good food sources include potatoes, mushrooms, celery.

Sodium is one mineral we are rarely deficient in, as it’s in all processed foods and also occurs naturally in fish. Athletes who sweat heavily might become sodium deficient, but this can be remedied with an electrolyte drink. Sodium is an electrolyte: it helps retain fluid balance in the body, between cells and bloodstream.

Sulphur is needed for cartilage production.  Cartilage is flexible connective tissue found in your joints, and in structures such as your outer ear. Good food sources include sprouts.

Trace Minerals:

Boron helps bones absorb calcium. Best food sources: fruit and vegetables.

Chromium helps reduce excess body fat and promotes lean muscle growth. Exercise depletes it, so keep your chromium levels topped up by eating wholegrains, mushrooms, nuts. However, excessive chromium intake can impede iron and zinc metabolism, as I explained to one of my personal training clients in Holland Park who was addicted to snacking on nuts between meals.

Cobalt helps iron absorption, and nerve function (particularly myelin sheath formation). Good food sources include seafood, fish, red meat (particularly liver), spinach, and nuts.

Fluoride is vital for healthy teeth and bones. Tap water contains fluoride, so you don’t need other food sources.

Iodine Vital for thyroid hormone production, to regulate metabolic rate. Best food sources: sea vegetables (particularly kelp), scallops, cod.

Iron is needed to make haemoglobin, which enables your red blood cells to carry oxygen around your bloodstream to feed all the muscle cells of your body. Iron deficiency anaemia causes low energy and poor physical performance. Red meat (particularly liver) is the best source of iron, but too much iron can impede absorption of zinc. For vegetarians, spinach is a good source, but you need to eat a lot, and combine it with some lemon juice to aid absorption. Other good vegetarian sources are pumpkin seeds, and lentils.

Manganese is vital for healthy bones, connective tissue, and calcium absorption. Best food sources: green veg, brown rice, coconut oil/milk, almonds.

Selenium is a key component of the enzyme glutathione, a vital antioxidant. Together with vitamin E it helps combat free-radicals, and boosts recovery time after physical exercise. Best food sources are meat, seafood, whole grains.

Zinc helps build and repair muscle after intensive workouts, so I’m always telling my personal training clients in London to eat more red meat, the single best food source of zinc. However, you only need 2-3 portions of red meat a week to keep your zinc levels topped up. Zinc is also vital for a healthy immune system, and for converting food into energy.

Dominic Londesborough is a personal trainer in London and online nutrition coach.